Department Chair

M. Scott Goodman, Ph.D.

Date of Award


Access Control

Campus-Only Access

Degree Name

Forensic Science, M.S.


Chemistry Department


Dr. Joonyeong Kim

Department Home page

First Reader

Joonyeong Kim, Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Chemistry

Second Reader

M. Scott Goodman, Ph.D., Chair and Associate Professor of the Chemistry

Third Reader

Jinseok Heo, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Chemistry


Quantitative analysis of trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) and adenosine in pure form and dietary supplements of royal jelly available in the United States was carried out via reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The target compounds, 10-HDA and adenosine, in samples and their internal standards, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (MHB) and theophylline, were separated using a Zorbex Eclipse XDB-C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm) with a polar mobile phase. In the case of 10-HDA analysis, a mixture of methanol, water, and phosphoric acid (55:45:5, v/v/v) was used as a mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the UV detection was performed at 215 nm at 25 °C. Our results show that the concentration of 10-HDA lies between 1.85 and 2.18 wt% for fresh royal jelly creams and between 0.43 and 6.28 wt% for royal jelly supplements. Adenosine was extracted by sonication in a mixture consisting of ethanol and deionized water (5:95, v/v) and a mobile phase of deionized water and acetonitrile (93:7, v/v) at 25 °C. The flow rate of a mobile phase was set to 1.0 mL/min and the UV detection was performed at 260 nm. The concentration of adenosine lies between ~27 and ~50 mg/g for fresh royal jelly creams and between ~2 and ~173 mg/g for royal jelly supplements.

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