Date of Award


Access Control

Open Access

Degree Name

Great Lakes Ecosystem Science


Great Lakes Center


Tao Tang

First Reader

Tao Tang

Second Reader

Stephen J. Vermette

Third Reader

Qiang Sun


Air particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is a critical environment problem worldwide and also in Beijing, China. We gathered five-year PM2.5 contaminate concentrations from 2014 to 2018, from the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center and China Air Quality Real-time Distribution Platform. This is a big dataset, and we collected with crawler technology from Python programming. After examining the quality of the recorded data, we determined to conduct the temporal and spatial analysis using 27 observation stations located in both urban and suburb area in the municipality of Beijing. The big dataset of five-year hourly PM2.5 concentrations was sorted to actionable datasets (Selected Datasets and Seasonal Average Selected Datasets) with the help of Python programming. Linear Regression based Fundamental Data Analysis was conducted as the first part of temporal analysis in R studio to gather the temporal patterns of five-year seasonal PM2.5 contaminant concentrations on each observation sites. As the second part of temporal analysis, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was conducted in MATLAB to gather the patterns of variations of entire five-year PM2.5 contaminant concentration on each of the sites. Geographic Information System (GIS) was utilized to study the spatial pattern of air pollution distribution from the selected 27 observation sites during selected time periods. The results of this research are, 1) PM2.5 pollutions in winter are the most severe or the highest in each of the natural years. 2) PM2.5 pollution concentrations in Beijing were gradually decrease during 2014 to 2018. 3) In terms of a five-year time perspective, the improvements of air quality and reduction of PM2.5 contaminant appeared in all the seasons based on Fundamental Data Analysis. 4) PM2.5 contaminant concentrations in summer are significantly less than other seasons. 5) The least PM2.5 pollutant influenced area is north and northwest regions in Beijing, and the most PM2.5 pollutant influenced area is south and southeast areas in Beijing. 6) Vehicle concentration and traffic congestion is not the significant impact factor of PM2.5 pollutions in Beijing. 7) Heating supply of buildings and houses generated great contributions to the PM2.5 contaminant concentration in Beijing. While, in the background of rigorous emission reduction policy and management operations by the municipal government, contribution of heating supplies is gradually decreasing. 8) Human activities have limited contributions to the PM2.5 contaminants in Beijing. Meanwhile, type and quantity of fossil fuel energy consumptions might contribute large amount of air pollutions.