Heavy Metals in ENDS Liquids: A Comparative Analysis of Products from the United States, England, Canada, and Australia
Recent research surrounding electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) has shown a presence of heavy metals in their e-liquids. Like many other toxicants that have been found in e-liquids, heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, chromium, and cadmium, can pose many serious health risks, making research on the topic very important. One entity currently investigating many aspects of ENDS, including heavy metals, is the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project. As part of their 4-Country Survey, my project aims to examine and compare the heavy metal concentrations in various ENDS products and e-liquids purchased in the United States, England, Canada, and Australia to see if differing policies between the countries surrounding ENDS production have any effect on their heavy metal content. The source of these metals in ENDS e-liquids has also been disputed between the cultivated tobacco used to derive nicotine for e-liquids and the metal parts of ENDS devices themselves. Therefore, the second aim of my project is to determine where these metals are originating from by examining both e-liquids from refill bottles (open-system) and e-liquids extracted from prefilled ENDS devices (closed-system).
Dr. Jinseok Heo
Coggins-Block, Ashleigh, "Heavy Metals in ENDS Liquids: A Comparative Analysis of Products from the United States, England, Canada, and Australia" (2021). School of Natural and Social Sciences. 3.